Marine protected area (MPA)
An area of sea (or coast) especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity, and of natural and associated cultural resources, and managed through legal or other effective means. (CBD)
An area with sustainable use consistent with conservation objectives.
An intervention to reduce negative or unsustainable uses of biodiversity and ecosystems. (IPBES)
Existing in or derived from nature; not made or caused by humankind. (Oxford Dictionary)
Quality (of habitats & biotopes)
The ability of the environment to provide conditions appropriate for individual and population persistence. (Hall et al. (1997:175))
Representativity is captured by a network when the network consists of areas representing the different biogeographical subdivisions of the sea, which in turn reflect the full range of ecosystems, including the biotic and habitat diversity of those marine ecosystems.
This also corresponds to the integrity, or the degree to which the area, either alone or in association with other protected areas, encompasses a complete ecosystem.
Activities that initiate or accelerate the recovery of an ecosystem from a degraded state.
Passive / natural restoration: Ending degradation, e.g. removal of contamination source, restriction of water flow, modifying inappropriate grazing /fire regimes, cessation of logging, agricultural land retirement.
Active / assisted restoration: A combination of the above strategy with abiotic and biotiv interventions, e.g. Abiotic; Active remediation of substrate conditions (physical or chemical), habitat creation, reshaping watercourses, reintroduction of environmental water flows, applying artificial disturbance to promote seed germination. And Biotic; Invasive species management, reintroduction of species, augmenting or reinforcing depleted populations of species.
Reconstructive restoration: A combination of the above strategies with the reintroduction of a major proportion of the desired biota. Possibly mimicking natural successional dynamics. (Atkinson & Bonser 2020, Restoration Ecology)
Risk assessment (ecological)
The process for evaluating how likely it is that the environment might be impacted as a result of exposure to one or more environmental stressors, such as chemicals, land-use change, disease, and invasive species. (EPA https://www.epa.gov/risk/ecological-risk-assessment )
A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs. (IPBES, from: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, https://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.59.aspx.pdf )
Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current generation without compromising the ability to meet those of future generations. (CBD)
Sustainable use (of biodiversity and its components)Risk assessment (ecological)
The use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations. (CBD, 1992, IPBES)
Any species which is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. (IUCN, CBD)
In the IUCN Red List terminology, a threatened species is any species listed in the Red List categories Critically Endangered, Endangered, or Vulnerable. See https://portals.iucn.org/library/efiles/documents/RL-2001-001-2nd.pdf (IPBES)
To grow or develop successfully: to flourish or succeed (The Britannica Dictionary)
A population large enough for long-term survival. (IUCN)
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